• The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion
    Tobias Armborst, Daniel D'Oca, and Georgeen Theodore
    Actar Publishers, 2017
    Interboro Partners:
    Tobias Armborst,
    Daniel D'Oca &
    Georgeen Theodore

Interboro Partners, mural, 2012. Illustration: Lesser Gonzalez.

Urban History 101 teaches us that the built environment is not the product of invisible, uncontrollable market forces, but of human-made tools that could have been used differently (or not at all). The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion is an encyclopedia of 202 tools—or what we call "weapons"—used by architects, planners, policymakers, developers, real-estate brokers, activists, and other urban actors in the United States to restrict or increase access to urban space. The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion inventories these weapons, examines how they have been used, and speculates about how they might be deployed (or retired) to make cities more open, such that more people feel welcome in more spaces, be they "exclusive" communities with good schools, good jobs, and stable property values, or the everyday public spaces—parks, sidewalks, and street corners—within those communities.

Tobias Armborst is an architect and urban designer. He received his degree in architecture from RWTH Aachen and his MArch in urban design from Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design (GSD). He is currently assistant professor of architecture and urban studies at Vassar College.

Daniel D'Oca is an urban planner. He received a master’s degree in urban planning from Harvard University’s GSD in 2002. He is currently assistant professor of urban and architectural history and theory at the Maryland Institute College of Art, and lecturer in urban planning and design at Harvard University’s GSD.

Georgeen Theodore is a registered architect and urban designer. She received her BArch from Rice University and her MArch in urban design from Harvard University’s GSD. She is currently associate professor at New Jersey Institute of Technology's School of Architecture and director of the Infrastructure Planning Program.

Interboro Partners is led by Armborts, D'Oca, and Theodore.